Phytochemical Content and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Solanum americanum Mill. (Solanaceae) Methanol Leaf Extract in Wistar Rats


  • Cletus Anes Ukwubile Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maidugur


Solanum americanum, Phytochemicals, Anti-inflammatory, Carrageenan


Background: The leaf of Solanum americanum Mill. has been used by some communities in Northeast Nigeria for the treatment of pain, inflammation, convulsion, diabetes, and other diseases for many decades.

Aim: This present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical contents as well as the anti-inflammatory activity of S. americanum methanol leaf extract in Wistar rat models.

Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of S. americanum methanol leaf extract (SAME) was determined following standard methods while the acute oral toxicity test of SAME was determined in five Wistar rats of opposite sex using the OECD guideline 425. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced rat paw oedema.

Results: The results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and phytosterols. The total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were 345.12 ± 2.04 mg GAE and 88.24 ± mg QE/g respectively. Oral acute toxicity of SAME showed that extract was well tolerated by the animals at the dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight after one week. Neither signs of toxicity nor mortality were witnessed in the animals, especially within the first 24 hours of oral toxicity testing. The anti-inflammatory evaluation of extract at the doses of 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg body weight (i.p.) showed a dose-dependent decrease in rat’s paw oedema in both carrageenan and formalin- induced rat paw oedema. These decreases were significant (p < 0.05) when compared to that of the standard drug (Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg; i.p.).

Conclusion: The results from the study showed the S. americanum methanol leaf extract possessed anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the production of pro-inflammation mediators. It further justifies the acclaimed use of S. americanum in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation.




How to Cite

Ukwubile, C. A. (2024). Phytochemical Content and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Solanum americanum Mill. (Solanaceae) Methanol Leaf Extract in Wistar Rats. International Journal of Complementary and Internal Medicine, 6(1), 259–267. Retrieved from