Male lupus: experience of Gabon, a country in sub-Saharan Africa
Keywords:Lupus, Man, Gabon
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mainly affecting young women, rarely in men. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinicobiological particularities of male SLE.
Patients and Methods
This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in the Internal Medicine Department of CHUL, over a period of 6 years, from 01/01/2016 to 05/31/2022. All patients met ACR criteria.
A total of 24 patients were registered with an average age of 29.33 years (range: 18-52 years). An insidious onset was observed in 83.33% of cases. Hematological signs were more frequent and represented 70.83% of patients. Anemia was present in 15 patients or 88.23% with 3 cases of hemolytic anemia, lymphopenia in 6 patients or 35.29%, leukopenia in 4 (23.53%) and thrombocytopenia in 3 patients or 17 .65%. Kidney damage accounted for 66.65% or 16 patients. General signs, joint damage and heart damage accounted for 54.17%, 45.83% and 20.83% respectively. Photosensitivity, facial erythema, and discoid lupus accounted for 25%, 20.83%, and 8.33%, respectively. Hair loss was present in 5 patients as well as lung involvement. 3 patients had lymphadenopathy, 2 neuropsychiatric signs and 2 also had digestive manifestations. Raynaud's phenomenon was objectified in one patient. Antinuclear autoantibodies were performed in 17 patients and were positive in 66.67% of cases, native anti-DNA antibodies performed in 15 patients and were positive in 9 of them. Soluble antigen antibodies were produced in 8 patients and were found positive in 3 of them. Anti-phospholipid antibodies made in 5 patients and positive in one case. All patients had received oral corticosteroid therapy and hydroxychloroquine.
Thirteen out of 24 (54.17%) had previously received intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Cyclophosphamide was administered in 3 patients and other immunosuppressants were administered in 3 patients as well. Five cases of death were recorded, i.e. 20.83% of cases.
SLE is rare in humans, nevertheless it correlates with higher mortality in front of the most frequent association with renal impairment, which requires a better knowledge of these clinicobiological particularities.